Herman E. Talmadge Collection: Collection SummaryHerman E. Talmadge Collection: Collection Summary

Herman E. Talmadge Collection: Collection Summary

Descriptive Summary

Title: Herman E. Talmadge Collection: Collection Summary
Creator: Talmadge, Herman E. (Herman Eugene), 1913-2002.
Dates: 1940-1987
Extent: 2074.0 boxes (994 linear feet, 225 audiovisual items, 2,665 photographs)
Collection Number: RBRL/102/HET
Repository: Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies
Abstract: Herman E. Talmadge was Governor of Georgia from 1948 to 1955 and a U.S. Senator from 1957 to 1980. His papers primarily document his service in the U.S. Senate and include constituent correspondence, press files, legislative files, campaign files, and files related to Watergate. Also included are files related to his father's newspaper, The Statesman, and to his service as governor.

Collection Description

Biographical Note

It was once said if you were not a Talmadge man you were a communist. The Talmadge dynasty began in 1926 when Eugene Talmadge, Herman's father, was first elected Commissioner of Agriculture. Gene would later be elected governor of Georgia to an unprecedented four terms. For over fifty years the Talmadges dominated Georgia politics until Herman was defeated in 1980.

Born on August 9, 1913, on a farm near McRae, Georgia, to Eugene and Mattie Talmadge, Herman attended public schools until his senior year when his family moved to Atlanta. In the fall of 1931, he entered the University of Georgia. By 1936, he had received his law degree and joined his father's law practice.

After serving in the United States Navy during World War II, Talmadge returned to his home in Lovejoy. While continuing to practice law and to farm, Talmadge took over publishing his father's weekly newspaper, The Statesman, and started a ham-curing business.

Talmadge's first involvement in politics was as his father's campaign manager in 1946. Running for an unprecedented fourth term as governor of Georgia, Eugene Talmadge was elected in November 1946, but was in failing health. As a precaution, a small group of Talmadge supporters started a write-in campaign for Herman Talmadge during the general election. When the elder Talmadge died in December 1946, before being sworn in as governor, the Georgia General Assembly elected his son governor by a vote of 161 to 87. But outgoing Governor Ellis Arnall refused to surrender his office unless it was to elected-Lieutenant Governor Melvin E. Thompson. After a period of uncertainty, the Georgia Supreme Court ruled that the constitutional portion under which the General Assembly had elected Herman Talmadge did not apply. The court declared M. E. Thompson acting governor until a special election could be held. In September 1948, Talmadge was elected governor and re-elected in 1950, serving until January 1955.

As governor, Herman Talmadge concentrated on improving educational opportunities for children of all races by establishing youth centers, increasing construction of rural roads, and building additional hospitals and health care centers.

When Senator Walter George officially announced his decision not to run for United States Senate, Talmadge started campaigning to take his place. Once again he was opposed by M. E. Thompson, but defeated him in the Democratic primary. With no Republican opposition in the general election in November 1956, Talmadge was elected United States senator.

The civil rights movement of the 1950s ultimately effected equal rights legislation for African-Americans and eliminated segregated public facilities in the South. Although progress toward integrating public schools was achieved, a majority of whites in the South remained adamant in their resistance to desegregation.

As part of that majority, Talmadge had voiced his opposition as early as the 1948 Democratic Convention when President Harry Truman tried to add civil rights to the platform. And in response to the Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education, Talmadge authored a book in 1955 about the wisdom of segregated education entitled You and Segregation.

When Talmadge officially began his term as the junior senator from Georgia in January 1957, he immediately joined the other Southern Democrats in their fight against civil rights legislation. "I never read a civil rights bill that didn't destroy more constitutional rights that it purported to give any group."

In response to the crisis of integrating Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas, Talmadge proposed a constitutional amendment in 1959 that would have permitted the state and local governments to decide whether or not to keep their schools segregated. This proposal was the first acknowledgment from a southern senator that Brown vs. Board of Education was an established fact.

Having won a seat on the Agriculture Committee in 1957, Talmadge wielded his greatest influence on bills that affected American farmers and agriculture. By 1971, he had become chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. Some of his major accomplishments in this area included guiding passage of a series of acts, which established price support programs for peanuts, cotton, wheat, and other commodities.

Talmadge probably achieved his greatest national prominence through his role on the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, which investigated the Watergate scandal and ultimately led to the resignation of the president and vice president of the United States, as well as the conviction of three cabinet members on felony charges. Talmadge thought that the Watergate investigation was one of the most important events in the history of the United States and demonstrated that a republican form of government has a way of correcting the conduct of public officials and alerting others not to make the same mistake.

At the same time he was gaining national recognition, Talmadge was besieged by a series of personal and political tragedies. In 1975, his son Robert drowned in a swimming accident at Lake Lanier; by the fall of 1977, Betty and Herman Talmadge had finalized their divorce; then, in 1978, Talmadge came to grips with a serious drinking problem. Following an alcohol treatment program at the naval hospital in Long Beach, California, he returned to Washington, ready to work, but met with scandal instead. Shortly after returning to the Capitol, Talmadge was accused of misappropriating office funds and campaign donations for his own personal use. The Senate Ethics Committee investigated the allegations and recommended that Talmadge be "denounced" for his reprehensible behavior and sentenced to reimburse the Senate for these controversial funds with interest.

Despite these problems, Talmadge sought his fifth term as senator in 1980, but was rejected by Georgia voters who chose to elect Mack Mattingly to replace him, the first Republican to hold the office since Reconstruction.

Serving twenty-four years in the United States Senate, Talmadge ranked fifth in seniority among Senate Democrats and seventh overall by the time he left office. Herman Talmadge passed away on March 21, 2002. He is survived by his one son, grandchildren, and wife Linda.

Scope and Content

Talmadge's papers primarily document his service in the U.S. Senate (1957-1980) and include constituent correspondence, press files, legislative files, and campaign files. Common subjects include civil rights, school desegregation, Vietnam, and the investigation of Watergate. Also included are files related to his father's newspaper, The Statesman, and to his service as governor.

Organization and Arrangement

This collection is organized into 3 subgroups: Subgroup A. Pre-Gubernatorial, Subgroup B. Georgia Gubernatorial Papers, and Subgroup C. United States Senatorial Papers.


Administrative Information and Restrictions

Conditions Governing Access note

This collection is open for research wit the following exceptions: Case mail is restricted.

Preferred citation

Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia Libraries, Athens, Georgia, 30602-1641.

Copyright Information

Before material from collections at the Richard B. Russell Library may be quoted in print, or otherwise reproduced, in whole or in part, in any publication, permission must be obtained from (1) the owner of the physical property, and (2) the holder of the copyright. It is the particular responsibility of the researcher to obtain both sets of permissions. Persons wishing to quote from materials in the Russell Library collection should consult the Director. Reproduction of any item must contain a complete citation to the original.

Conditions Governing Use

Library acts as a "fair use" reproduction agent.

Finding Aid Publication

Finding aid prepared by Adriane Hanson and Jordan Graham (student assistant), September 2016.


Related Materials

Access Points

African Americans--Civil rights--Georgia.
African Americans--Civil rights--United States.
Agricultural laws and legislation--United States.
Busing for school integration--Georgia.
Civil rights demonstrations--Georgia.
Civil rights demonstrations--United States.
Columbus (Ga.)
Finance--Law and legislation--United States.
Legislators--United States
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994
Panama Canal Treaties (1977)
Textile industry.
United States--Politics and government--1951-
United States--Race relations.
United States. Civil Rights Act of 1957.
United States. Civil Rights Act of 1964.
United States. Civil Rights Act of 1966.
United States. Congress. Senate.
United States. Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Vietnam War, 1961-1975.
Watergate Affair, 1972-1974.

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John W. Davis Papers

E. L. Forrester Papers

Georgia State Democratic Executive Committee Papers

Roy V. Harris Papers

Mack F. Mattingly Papers

Erwin Mitchell Papers

Maston O'Neal Papers

John L. Pilcher Papers

Prince H. Preston Papers

Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection

Richard B. Russell Oral History interviews

T. Rogers Wade Collection of Herman E. Talmadge Materials

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Related Collections in Other Repositories

Governor, Executive Department, Georgia Department of Archives and History

Richard H. Rich papers, Woodruff Special Collections, Emory University

William Berry Hartsfield papers, Woodruff Special Collections, Emory University

Georgia Governors roundtable oral history interview, 1985 Oct. 31, Georgia Government Documentation Project, William Russell Pullen Library, Georgia State University

Herman E. Talmadge oral history interview, 1976 June 1, Georgia Government Documentation Project, William Russell Pullen Library, Georgia State University

Georgia's Political Heritage Program oral history interviews, State University of West Georgia


Series Descriptions and Folder Listing

 

Subgroup A. Pre-Gubernatorial, 1945-1954

Extent: 3.0 boxes (1.5 linear feet)
Scope and Content: The Pre-Gubernatorial subgroup consists of the subject files for The Statesman, Talmadge's father's weekly newspaper, and includes correspondence, newspaper clippings, printed material and photographs. Materials relate to letters to the editor, elections in Georgia and his father, Eugene Talmadge, religion, taxes, communism, and African Americans.
Arrangement note: Arrangement is alphabetical.
Conditions Governing Access note: This subgroup is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this subgroup, visit the finding aid for this subgroup.
 

Subgroup B. Georgia Gubernatorial Papers, 1945-1954

Extent: 25.0 boxes (14.5 linear feet)
Scope and Content: The Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup B: Georgia Gubernatorial Papers reflects Talmadge's duties as the governor of Georgia and include personal correspondence, subject files and guest registers.
Arrangement note: Subgroup B: Georgia Gubernatorial Papers is organized into three sections: Personal Correspondence, Subject, and Guest Registers.
Conditions Governing Access note: This subgroup is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this subgroup, visit the finding aid for this subgroup.



Series A. Personal Correspondence, 1950-1955

Extent: 5.0 boxes (2.5 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Personal correspondence, reports, and speeches make up this subseries. Items of interest include a 1948 Governor Inaugural program, a Dedication of the Eugene Talmadge Bridge pamphlet, and a signed Governor's Oath of Office (1948). There are materials that relate to segregation.
Arrangement note: The Personal Correspondence subseries is arranged in alphabetical order. Gaps exist from files beginning with A to G and U to Z.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series B. Subject, 1947-1954

Extent: 17.0 boxes (8.5 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: The subject subseries includes correspondence, newspaper clippings, reports, printed material, and photographs relating to hospitals and health care, budgets, education, elections, highways, schools, taxes and welfare.
Arrangement note: Arrangement is alphabetical.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series C. Guest Registers, 1949-1955

Extent: 5.0 volumes (2 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Governor Talmadge's guest registers dating from January, 1949 to November, 1955. The guest registers list visitors to Talmadge's office at the Georgia state capitol.
Arrangement note: Arrangement is chronological.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
 

Subgroup C. United States Senatorial Papers, 1940-1987

Extent: 2046.0 boxes (978 linear feet, 225 audiovisual items)
Arrangement note: Subgroup C. is organized into 12 series: I. Early Senate Office, II. Press Office, III. Civil Rights, IV. Watergate, V. Administration, VI. Political, VII. Political Patronage, VIII. Legislation, IX. Personal, X. Mailing LIsts, XI. Flexys, and XII. Related Materials.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail is restricted.



Series I. Early Senate Office, 1957-1987

Extent: 42.0 boxes (21.0 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series I: Early Senate Office includes clippings, reports, printed materials, press releases, speeches and Talmadge's personal notes on various subjects. There is material relating to the federal budget, communism, the county unit system, education, the Eisenhower administration, farm legislation, foreign affairs, Georgia history, Marvin Griffin, Rule XXII, Melvin Thompson and the two governor controversy in Georgia, the Truman administration, and the United Nations.
These papers bridge the period that Herman Talmadge was governor to his first few years as a United States Senator. The press office subseries (1957-1960) and the gubernatorial series coincide with the early senate office subseries.
Arrangement note: This series is arranged alphabetically by subject.
Conditions Governing Access note: This series is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series II. Press Office, 1957-1987

Extent: 352.0 boxes (159.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: The Press Office files include constituent correspondence, grant information, speeches, working files, legislative files, radio and television scripts, news releases, newsletters mailed to Georgia constituents, columns written by Talmadge, and newspaper clippings. The majority of the materials date from the late 1960s to the late 1970s.
Constituent correspondence contains information on pending legislation and other issues of local or national concern. Topics include the Vietnam Conflict, the Watergate investigation, and the ratification of the Panama Canal Treaty. Grant files relate to federal aid for projects in Georgia including housing, dam construction, and water systems. Speech files consist of information on speeches Talmadge delivered to various civic, farm, church, and school organizations; local governments; and those to the United States Senate. Topics of the senate speeches include civil rights, rural development, and the Lockheed C-5A.Working files provide background information on numerous topics including the development of Lake Lanier Islands, forced school busing, the textile trade, the poultry industry, and works incentive program. Also there is information on Talmadge's role in the Watergate investigation, the 1979 Talmadge ethics controversy, the county unit system, segregation and campaign material.The legislative files consist of correspondence, speeches, new releases, copies of the Congressional Record, and voting records pertaining to legislation of interest to Talmadge, either through authorship or sponsorship.
Arrangement note: The Press Office files are organized in reverse chronological order and arranged by file type within each year.
Conditions Governing Access note: This series is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series III. Civil Rights, 1957-1987

Extent: 24.0 boxes (11.5 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series III: Civil Rights files document aspects of the federal government's expansion over state authority in this area, and Talmadge's efforts against such infringement. Included is constituent correspondence, mainly for the year 1968, dealing with the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy, social unrest, freedom marches, and the Poor People's Campaign. Legislative files contain correspondence, printed materials, and legal opinions pertaining to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, 1964, and 1966, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and busing.
The collection also includes legislative reference service materials, speeches, news releases, subject files, excerpts from the Congressional Record, printed legislation, and newspaper clipping.
Arrangement note: The civil rights series is organized into nine sections: constituent correspondence, legislation, Legislative Reference Service, speeches, news releases, subject files, Congressional Record, printed legislation, and clippings.
Conditions Governing Access note: This series is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Constituent Correspondence, 1968-1970
Extent: 3.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These letters between Talmadge and his Georgia constituents date, almost exclusively, to 1968. Covering this important year in civil rights history, the correspondence deals with subjects such as the assassinations of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr., social unrest, freedom marches, and the Poor People's campaign.The correspondence is arranged in reverse chronological order, according to the date of Talmadge's outgoing letter. Clippings that were included with the constituent letters have been photocopied on bond paper.As noted earlier, other civil rights material exist elsewhere in the Talmadge Collection. The researcher will find more constituent correspondence for other years in the Press Office Series.
Subseries B. Legislation, 1966-1973
Extent: 4.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These files deal with civil rights legislation that either directly or indirectly involved Talmadge. Using this portion of the series, a researcher will find materials that helped Talmadge prepare for debate on some of the nation's most important civil rights legislation. The files contain correspondence, published articles, legal opinions, and other background material. It covers legislation such as busing, the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1966.Because the issue of busing has been debated for many years, it was kept together as a distinct unit. Otherwise, the material is arranged by year of the bill or act. The researcher will find materials on civil rights laws, such as those listed above, in other portions of the Collection.
Subseries C. Legislative Reference Service, 1958-1966
Extent: 1.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These files contain information provided by the Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service upon Talmadge's request. This department provided valuable information on a wide range of topics which helped Talmadge prepare his arguments on civil rights legislation. Arrangement is alphabetical by subject. The date provided is when the material was prepared by the Legislative Reference Service.
Subseries D. Speeches, 1963-1965
Extent: 5.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This portion of the Civil Rights Series contains Talmadge's speech notes used in his remarks on the Senate floor. Some of the speeches are incomplete. It is not clear whether the missing portions no longer exist or if they are contained in other portions of the Collection.
Subseries E. News Releases, 1957-1965
Extent: 1.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This group of materials are statements by Talmadge for release in various newspapers. Also included are radio and television statements. Some of the releases are transcripts of Senate floor speeches or statements made before various Senate committees.
Subseries F. Subject Files, 1962
Extent: 3.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This portion contains background information on civil rights issues not directly related to specific legislation. Within the files are correspondence and published materials, as well as speeches and news releases by other public figures.
Subseries G. Congressional Record, 1866-1973
Extent: 3.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These files are excerpts from The Congressional Record covering civil rights issues.
Subseries H. Printed Legislation, 1957-1967
Extent: 1.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This box contains a partial collection of printed bills, acts, resolutions, and amendments that are unmarked. Any that were marked by Talmadge or his staff remain in their original files elsewhere in the Civil Rights Series.
Subseries I. Clippings, 1950-1974
Extent: 3.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This sub series contains clippings from various state and national newspapers and magazines. The subjects covered are not limited to civil rights issues, but also include other topics of concern to Talmadge. This portion is divided into two arrangements.



Series IV. Watergate, 1957-1987

Extent: 73.0 boxes (36.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series IV: Watergate files document the United States Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, known as the Ervin Committee. The committee was ordered to investigate the Watergate break-in and cover-up as well as other matters relating to the 1972 presidential campaign. These files reflect Talmadge's involvement on the Senate Select Committee and include committee and subject files, witness information, and proceeding reports. The files also contain correspondence, legal documents, lists, memorandums, and reports relating to committee business, political espionage, and the Bellino subcommittee. The Bellino subcommittee was composed of Senators Talmadge, Edward Gurnery and Daniel Inouye, and was created to investigate allegations that Carmine Bellino had spied on Republican party campaign officials during the 1960 presidential campaign on behalf of the Democratic party. The subject files consist of witness summaries, statements, exhibits, and correspondence. Materials pertain to illegal campaign contributions by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Braniff Airways, ITT anti-trust and milk pricing cases, and the Responsiveness Program, an attempt to make government departments more "responsive" to the political needs of Nixon's re-election campaign.
Arrangement note: The Watergate files are organized into four sections: committee, office, out-of-state mail, and unanswerable mail.
Conditions Governing Access note: This series is open for research.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Committee, 1969-1974
Extent: 16.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This series deals directly with the work of the Select Committee and its investigation. The committee subseries is composed of the following divisions: 1. Committee File, 2. Subject File, 3. Witnesses, and 4. Proceeding Reports.1. Committee File: Consists of correspondence on Committee business, copies of correspondence sent to Chairman Sam Ervin or other members of the Committee (correspondents include Richard Nixon, George Bush and George Schultz), statement of Committee expenditures, lists, chronologies, and a chart on political espionage, legal documents and other material arranged alphabetically by type of material. Following this alphabetical arrangement is a folder concerning the Bellino Subcommittee--memos, reports, Bellino's statement and other material. The Bellino Subcommittee was composed of Senators Talmadge, Edward J. Gurney and Daniel K. Inouye, and was created to investigate allegations that Carmine S. Bellino had spied on Republican party campaign officials during the 1960 Presidential campaign on behalf of the Democratic party.2. Subject File: Witness summaries, statements, exhibits (most indexed), other material on illegal campaign contributions by U.S. companies, such as Braniff and Goodyear. Also includes correspondence, press releases and other material on the ITT anti-trust and milk pricing cases, as well as the Responsiveness Program, an attempt to make government departments more "responsive" to the political needs of Nixon's reelection campaign. Arranged alphabetically.3. Witnesses: Arranged alphabetically by last name of witness. Copies of biographical sketches, correspondence, witness summaries, statements, exhibits, computer printouts and other material pertaining to the testimony of witnesses before the Committee. This division also includes copies (some handwritten), of some of the questions asked by Talmadge during the hearings. Witnesses include H. R. Halderman, John Dean, and John Ehrlichman. There is no folder for John Mitchell.4. Proceeding Reports: Incomplete set of proceeding reports (lack volumes 1, 22 (afternoon session 27 and 35), arranged by volume number. Each report has a transcript of the day's session(s). There are also two volumes of exhibits in addition to those exhibits included in the other volumes.
Subseries B. Office, 1973
Extent: 1.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries contains correspondence (mainly from visitors to Talmadge's Washington office), memos, news releases (Talmadge and Nixon), newspaper clippings, transcripts and other material relating to Watergate kept as part of Talmadge's office rather than committee file. Included is a July 12, 1973 memo on the possible political consequences of watergate by E.M. "Mac" Ferguson counsel for the Democratic Steering Committee in the Correspondence folder.
Subseries C. Out-of-State Mail, 1973
Extent: 45.5 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries is composed of correspondence (both copies and originals), memos, telegrams, postcards, resolutions, petitions, articles, and other material sent by non-Georgians commenting on Watergate and related matters. This material was originally bundled together for Talmadge's office staff to answer (see memo in Subseries B above, in the correspondence folder), and this arrangement was retained during processing, so there is no systematic chronological arrangement within each folder. Some of the material has handwritten notations indicating the number of the flexy (form letter), to be used in reply. The subseries is composed of the following divisions: 1. Answered-Categorized and 2. Answered-Uncategorized.1. Answered-Categorized: This division consists of the following subdivisions: Bobby Baker (reactions to an article alleging a cover-up scandal involving Baker during the administration of Lyndon Johnson by some of the members of the Select Committee, including Talmadge; also the Georgia two-governor controversy including Talmadge), Anti-Nixon (primarily opposing any compromise on the Watergate tapes and the dismissal of Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox), Pro-Nixon, Favorable (to the Committee in whole or in part, or to Talmadge particularly), Unfavorable (same parenthetical note as above), and Regular (subsumes all of the categories above, plus material of an informational nature). Arranged by category, then chronologically.2. Answered-Uncategorized: Arranged chronologically. There are some isolated pieces that have been categorized, but were never sorted out and put with other categorized mail, probably due to time constraints. Included is a December 1, 1973 letter from the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, head of the Unification Church (Folder 6, Box 39)
Subseries D. Unanswerable Mail, 1973-1974
Extent: 10.5 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Similar in content to Subseries C, above. This is material from non-Georgians and Georgians that was not answered by Talmadge's staff due to content or the lack of address. Arranged chronologically, this subseries also consisted of bundles, so it shares Subseries C's lack of systematic chronological arrangement within each folder. Includes text of radio address/sound recording entitled "Americans" by Gordon Sinclair (Folder 1, Box 65).



Series V. Administration, 1957-1980

Extent: 226.0 boxes (113.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: From 1957 until 1971, the Administration and Press offices shared the same secretary and files. After 1971, the two offices were separated, as were their filing systems. Therefore some of the subseries are identical to those in the Press Office files series.
This series consists of those activities that are not directly associated with "legislating" or providing constituent services but are nevertheless part of the routine of every officeholder. Also included are visitor cards, guest books, the Senator's appointment books, telephone records, and White House tour requests. Topics include the desegregation of the University of Mississippi in 1962; the civil action suit between Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor of Atlanta, and Rev. Robert Hunter, leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1967; Vietnam; reaction to the Gulf of Tonkin and Mansfield Resolutions in 1967; the Pueblo incident; and the Whitten Amendment of 1969 which proposed the freedom of choice as an acceptable desegregation plan.
Arrangement note: This series is organized into five subseries: A. Category Files, B. Grant Files, C. Speeches, D. Correspondence, and E. Office Administration.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail is restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Category Files, 1962-1972
Extent: 162.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These files include correspondence between Georgia constituents and Senator Talmadge with some newsclippings and printed materials also included. The Administration office was responsible for answering constituent mail until 1970, when it became the responsibility of the Press office. Items of interest are letters concerning the desegregation of the University of Mississippi in 1962; the civil action suit between Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor of Atlanta, and Rev. Robert Hunter, leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1967; Vietnam; reaction to the Gulf of Tonkin and Mansfield Resolutions in 1967; the Pueblo incident; and the Whitten Amendment of 1969 which proposed the freedom of choice as an acceptable desegregation plan. For a more accurate understanding of this subseries, the researcher should review the constituent correspondence in the Press Office Series.
Subseries B. Grant Files, 1966-1978
Extent: 22.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: These files relate to federal aid for projects in Georgia, such as housing, dam construction, water systems and others. Contents include budget worksheets, approval notices, and press releases. For a more complete understanding of this series, the researcher should also review the grant files in the Press Office series.
Subseries C. Speeches, 1968-1971
Extent: 1.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Materials found in speeches mainly consist of press releases of the speech itself. Issues found in Talmadge's speeches include civil rights, crime, defense, education, farming, foreign policy, social security, taxes, and Vietnam. More speeches are available to the researcher in the Press Office series.
Subseries D. Correspondence, 1971-1973
Extent: 6.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries includes some "constituent correspondence" from 1971, as well as some personal files pertaining to Talmadge's insurance, invitations and donations to several organizations.
Subseries E. Office Adminstration, 1957-1980
Extent: 27.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Materials found in office administration mainly consist of visitor cards, guest books, the Senator's appointment books, telephone records, and White House tours. These were materials used in the Washington office on a daily basis.



Series VI. Political, 1950-1980

Extent: 159.0 boxes (80.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series VI: Political files document Talmadge's campaigns for the United States Senate seat in 1956 and his re-election campaigns of 1966, 1974 and 1980. Included in this series are correspondence, mailing lists, newspaper clippings, speeches, guest registers, scrapbook, receipts, expenditure reports, printed materials, newsletters, tax returns, and political opinion polls. The purpose of the opinion polls was to reflect support that Talmadge might expect during an election year. There are also materials pertaining to an attempt by some Georgians to persuade Talmadge to run for governor of Georgia in 1966.
Arrangement note: This series is organized into two subseries: A. Campaign and B. Political Opinion Polls.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Campaign, 1956-1986
Extent: 155.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This series documents Talmadge's campaigns for the United States Senate seat in 1956 and his re-election campaigns of 1966, 1974 and 1980. Included in this series are correspondence, mailing lists, newspaper clippings, speeches, guest registers, scrapbook, receipts, expenditure reports, printed materials, newsletters, tax returns, and political opinion polls. The purpose of the opinion polls was to reflect support that Talmadge might expect during an election year. There are also materials pertaining to an attempt by some Georgians to persuade Talmadge to run for governor of Georgia in 1966.
Subseries B. Political Opinion Polls, 1950-1976
Extent: 4.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: The purpose of the political opinion polls was to reflect support that Talmadge might expect in a campaign year. These files consist of records of the consolidated vote in the state elections, campaign proposals, and opinion polls.



Series VII. Political Patronage, 1957-1971

Extent: 19.0 boxes (13.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Many individuals in Georgia and elsewhere sought Senator Talmadge's assistance in winning federal appointments or jobs, and materials here reflect his role in this process. Requests for federal judgeships, federal attorneys and assistant attorneys, federal marshals, Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation committee and Georgia-based postmasters. The files were divided by regions-Northern, Middle, and Southern. Nominations were a standard part of the senator's job, as documented in these files.
Arrangement note: This series is organized into two subseries: A. Georgia Post Office and B. General Appointments
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Georgia Post Office, 1957-1971
Extent: 12.0 boxes
Subseries B. General Appointments, 1957-1971
Extent: 7.0 boxes



Series VIII. Legislation, 1957-1980

Extent: 474.0 boxes (233.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series VIII: Legislation subject matter pertain to legislation being considered by Congress. The researcher will find overlap between the Legislative and Press Office series in related subject matter. For more detailed information on the Watergate affair, the researcher should review Series II (Press Office) and Series IV (Watergate).
Arrangement note: In the Washington office, the Legislative files were managed by the Congress. For example, 1973-1974 files were kept for current use; and when the 93rd Congress adjourned, these files were retired. The overall arrangement of this series was chronological, latest date first, followed by an alphabetical arrangement of Joint, Standing (subcommittees) or select committees. Within each committee, subjects related to that committee are arranged in alphabetical order.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Congress, 1957-1980
Extent: 429.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: The Congress files consist of constituent correspondence, news clippings, reports, and published materials. This subseries is divided by each congress and within each congress by its session. Each session consists of constituent correspondence along with a copy of the Senator's response to each letter. The correspondence contains information on a variety of legislation of local and national concern. Arrangement within each session is alphabetical by subject.Along with each session, the 96th Congress contained files pertaining to the ethics controversy. This subsubseries contains financial statements, reports, transcripts used in Talmadge's ethics hearings before the Judiciary committee. Arrangement is by topic.Also, research files of Legislative Assistant Randy Nuckolls are a part of the 95th and 94th Congress subsubseries. His files consisted of reports, correspondence, published materials and copies of legislation. These files were used to prepare for upcoming legislation of interest to Senator Talmadge. Topics included education, the Chattahoochee River, health care, labor, transportation, and welfare. Arrangement is alphabetical by topic.These are just a few files from Talmadge's Legislative Assistants because most of their files were woven into the main body of the legislation series.The 93rd Congress subsubseries had both sessions together by subject. Also, there are several files pertaining to the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, more commonly referred to as the Watergate Committee. Other subsubseries contain information pertaining to energy and the armed forces.During the 89th Congress, there were two different filing systems in existence. One system had files arranged alphabetically by committees that Talmadge served on as senator, the other was arranged alphabetically by subject.The 85th Congress subseries had both sessions arranged by topic in chronological order. These files include speeches, news clippings and correspondence on civil rights, appropriations, and agriculture. There are also speeches and news clippings dated from 1957 to 1961.
Subseries B. Voting Records, 1957-1980
Extent: 18.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries contains the individual voting records of Senator Talmadge, as well as the senate voting records from the 85th to the 96th Congresses. One box includes Talmadge's voting record on minimum wage, Vietnam, education, Medicare and the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
Subseries C. Congressional Record Speeches, 1957-1961
Extent: 4.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries contains congressional record speeches from Talmadge and other senators, as well as some newspaper clippings. The topics range from civil rights, Rule XXII and busing to the District of Columbia.
Subseries D. Legislative Information, 1973-1980
Extent: 2.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: This subseries consists of written notes and reports regarding Talmadge's legislative activities.



Series IX. Personal, 1950-1980

Extent: 163.0 boxes (79 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: The Personal series contains correspondence and material of a personal nature including invitations, greetings, thank yous, condolences and items related to the Richard B. Russell Foundation, which Senator Talmadge served as chairman from 1971 until 1974.
Especially noteworthy are the subseries Sympathy and Ham Business. Sympathy includes letters of condolence to him and his family relating to the death of his youngest son, Robert, in 1975. The Ham Business subseries contains printed materials and correspondence concerning Talmadge Hams. Betty Talmadge managed the business while the senator worked in Washington. The invitation subseries includes invitations accepted, fulfilled, or regretted.Some of the materials found in the Personal series can also be found in both the Press Office and Political series. The researcher should examine these series in order that all information is reviewed.
Arrangement note: This series is organized into nine subseries: A. Russell Foundation, B. Acknowledgments, C. Greetings, D. Sympathy, E. Invitations, F. Thank Yous, G. Betty Talmadge/Ham Business, H. Correspondence, and I. Telegrams.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.
Subseries A. Russell Foundations, 1970-1977
Extent: 9.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Contains material and correspondence relating to the organization and the creation of the Richard B. Russell Memorial Library.
Subseries B. Acknowledgement, 1973
Extent: 5.0 boxes
Subseries C. Greetings, 1976-1977
Extent: 6.0 boxes
Subseries D. Sympathy, 1975
Extent: 23.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Contains material relating to the death of Senator Talmadge's youngest son, Robert, in 1975 and letters of condolence to his family.
Subseries E. Invitations, 1969-1980
Extent: 75.0 boxes
Subseries F. Thank Yous, 1964-1979
Extent: 20.0 boxes
Subseries G. Betty Talmadge/Ham Business, 1957-1972
Extent: 4.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Contains material and correspondence concerning Talmadge Hams. Betty Talmadge managed the business while the Senator worked in Washington. This sub series also contains some of the personal correspondence of Mrs. Talmadge.
Subseries H. Correspondence, 1950-1968
Extent: 21.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Contains personal correspondence which does not fit easily into any other category. It does, however, contain some interesting correspondence between Talmadge and other United States Senators and Congressmen. [For more information on the 1966 Gubernatorial campaign, the researcher should also review VI. Political under 1966 campaign.]
Subseries I. Telegrams, 1972
Extent: 1.0 boxes



Series X. Mailing Lists, 1974-1978

Extent: 12.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Consists mainly of mailing lists for Talmadge's newsletter from 1974 and 1976. The list from 1974 is divided into 35 volumes and specified by name and number below. The boxed material contains reference guides and computer instructions for compiling the mailing lists. Some correspondence associated with the mailings is also included.
Arrangement note: The lists are arranged alphabetically.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series XI. Flexys, 1965-1980

Extent: 462.0 boxes (231 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: Talmadge's office staff had to coordinate the organization of constituent correspondence records. The tracking system began with attaching the actual letter (incoming and outgoing), along with copies of approved response paragraphs. These materials were then organized under a subject access point. With the adoption of the on-line correspondence management system (CMS) in the 1970s, computer databases became a key component of the correspondence records, and access became more flexible, but dependent on the CMS.
This system provided word processing; the capability of inserting selected, approved paragraphs; personalized salutations and closings; personalized text; the ability to create targeted mailing lists; correspondence records; mail count on issues; automatic filing; and correspondence tracking. The bulk of the collection increased with the on-line system. Currently, efforts are underway to make these records available electronically. However, hardcopies are available in this series. Topics of interest include tax reform, Vietnam, school desegregation, busing, gun control, social services and the Panama Canal Treaty.
Arrangement note: Arrangement is chronological.
Conditions Governing Access note: Case mail restricted.
Other Finding Aids note: To view more detailed information or to request materials from this series, visit the finding aid for this series.



Series XII. Related Materials, 1940-1987

Extent: 40.0 boxes
Arrangement note: This series is divided into three subseries: 1. Photographs, 2. Audiovisual, and 3. Artifacts.
Conditions Governing Access note: This series is open for research.
Subseries 1. Photographs, 1957-1987
Extent: 8.0 boxes (5 linear feet, 2,665 photographs)
Scope and Contents note: The Herman E. Talmadge Collection, Subgroup C, Series XII: Related Materials, 1. Photographs consists of over 2,600 unique photographs illustrates the life and career of Senator Talmadge and includes personal photographs as well as those released in public service. Early photographs include images of Talmadge's father, Eugene Talmadge, as a young man in 1910 and span his father's and Herman's political careers.
Subseries 2. Audiovisual, 1940-1986
Extent: 225.0 items
Scope and Contents note: The Herman E. Talmadge Collection Audiovisual materials document Herman Talmadge's career as governor of Georgia and later in the U.S. Senate, including his involvement in the Three Governors Controversy (1946-48), the Southern Caucus and segregation, and his final campaign for United States Senate (1980). The wire recordings in this collection document Talmadge's successful campaign against M.E. Thompson for the Georgia governorship in 1948, immediately following the Three Governor's Controversy.
Subseries 3. Artifacts, 1957-1987
Extent: 32.0 boxes
Scope and Contents note: Throughout this public service career, Talmadge received many plaques, citations, proclamations, honorary degrees, resolutions, and presentation certificates. Some of the more prestigious were Georgia Forestry Association appreciation award (1980), Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'Rith Atlanta Division 1973 Abe Goldstein Human Relations Award and an Atlanta Braves appreciation award (1971).