Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Subgroup C, Series XI: Rivers and HarborsRichard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Subgroup C, Series XI: Rivers and Harbors

Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Subgroup C, Series XI: Rivers and Harbors

Descriptive Summary

Title: Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Subgroup C, Series XI: Rivers and Harbors
Creator: Russell, Richard B., (Richard Brevard), 1897-1971
Dates: 1937-1970
Extent: 26.0 boxes (12.25 linear feet)
Collection Number: RBRL/001/RBR
Repository: Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies
Abstract: The Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Subgroup C, Series XI. Rivers and Harbors contains correspondence, printed materials and publications relating to federal river and harbor projects. Files are subdivided into General, Corps of Engineers, Individual Projects, and Flood Control Projects. The individual projects were relevant to the constituents of the state of Georgia and its neighbors. Any additional non-textual materials originally filed with papers were removed for preservation purposes and improved access. These materials include photographs, audiovisual items, scrapbooks, vertical files, memorabilia, and books.

Collection Description

Biographical Note

Richard B. Russell Jr. served in public office for fifty years as a state legislator, governor of Georgia, and U.S. senator. Although Russell was best known for his efforts to strengthen the national defense and to oppose civil rights legislation, he favored his role as advocate for the small farmer and for soil and water conservation. Russell also worked to bring economic opportunities to Georgia. He helped to secure or maintain fifteen military installations; more than twenty-five research facilities, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Russell Agricultural Research Center; and federal funding for development and construction. Russell believed that his most important legislative contribution was his authorship and secured passage of the National School Lunch Program in 1946.

Serving in the U.S. Senate from 1933 until his death in 1971, Russell was one of that body's most respected members. Secretary of State Dean Rusk called him the most powerful and influential man in Washington, D.C., for a period of about twenty years, second only to the president. Russell attained that position of power through his committee assignments—specifically a total of sixteen years as the chair of the Armed Services Committee and a career-long position on the Appropriations Committee, serving as its chair for his last two years in the Senate. In large measure he determined the agricultural and defense legislation considered by the Senate, as well as matters affecting the federal budget. During the twentieth century Russell, along with Carl Vinson in the U.S. House of Representatives, was undeniably among the nation's foremost experts on military and defense policy. An advisor to six presidents and a 1952 candidate for president, Russell ended his career as president pro tempore of the Senate, making him third in the line of presidential succession.

Richard Brevard Russell Jr. was born in Winder on November 2, 1897, to Richard B. Russell Sr., a lawyer, state legislator, businessman, and judge, and Ina Dillard Russell, a teacher. He was the fourth child, and first son, of what became a family of thirteen children. Russell was related to Marietta's Brumby family through his paternal grandmother, Rebecca Harriette Brumby, and in the 1950s his cousin, Otis A. Brumby Jr., worked for him as a Senate page.

His education began at home, where a governess taught Russell and his siblings until 1910. From 1911 to 1913 and again in 1915 he attended the Gordon Institute in Barnesville, and he graduated in 1914 from the Seventh District Agricultural and Mechanical School (later John McEachern High School) in Powder Springs. In 1915, he entered the University of Georgia and was active in various social groups, including the Sigma Alpha Epsilon social fraternity, the Gridiron Club, the Jeffersonian Law Society, and the Phi Kappa Literary Society. He graduated in 1918 with a Bachelor of Laws degree.

After practicing law for more than a year, Russell was elected in 1920 to the Georgia House of Representatives, becoming at age twenty-three one of the youngest members of that body. He received appointments to various committees and, building on friendships from his school days, advanced quickly in the political arena. He was elected Speaker pro tempore by the state house in 1923 and 1925. In 1927 he was elected Speaker of the House and remained in that position until 1931.

In the state legislature Russell advocated building and improving highways, supported public education, and called for reducing the control of special-interest groups in order to develop a fiscally responsible and efficient state government. He took the same agenda to the people in April 1930, when he announced his candidacy for governor. Russell battled a field of seasoned candidates to win the gubernatorial election. His victory was attributed to a grassroots campaign and his skill in canvassing voters door-to-door across Georgia.

Becoming Georgia's youngest governor in the twentieth century, Russell took the oath of office in June 1931. During his eighteen-month tenure, his most significant achievement was a comprehensive reorganization of the state government, which was accomplished by reducing the number of agencies from 102 to 17. A highlight of this reorganization was the creation of the University System of Georgia, with the Board of Regents as the single governing body over all state colleges and universities. Russell cut state expenditures by 20 percent, balanced the budget without cutting salaries (other than his own), and honored $2.8 million in delinquent obligations.

The death of U.S. Senator William J. Harris in 1932 opened the door for Russell to enter national politics. On April 25, Governor Russell appointed John S. Cohen, publisher of the Atlanta Journal, as interim senator and announced his own candidacy for election to Harris's unexpired term, which ran until 1937. After a tough campaign, Russell was victorious against Charles Crisp, a veteran congressman. Russell's only other contested U.S. Senate election occurred in 1936, when he defeated Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge.

Russell entered the U.S. Senate in 1933 as the youngest member and a strong supporter of U.S. presidential candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt. Seeing the New York governor as the leader who could end the Great Depression, Russell had detoured from his own campaign to attend the Democratic National Convention and to make a seconding speech for Roosevelt's nomination. The two men had become acquainted during the 1920s, when Roosevelt often visited Warm Springs. After Roosevelt was elected president, Russell marked his first decade in the Senate by ensuring the passage of Roosevelt's New Deal programs.

Russell was awarded an unheard-of freshman spot on the important Appropriations Committee, and he became chairman of its subcommittee on agriculture, a post he retained throughout his career. Russell deeply believed in the significance of agriculture in American society. Representing a mostly rural Georgia, he focused on legislation to assist the small farmer, including the Farm Security Administration, the Farmers Home Administration, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Rural Electrification Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Resettlement Administration, commodity price supports, and soil conservation. A major participant in the Farm Bloc, he worked with a bipartisan group of senators who were committed to increasing the success rate for individual farmers.

In 1933, Russell was appointed to the Naval Affairs Committee, and he continued to serve when that committee and the Military Affairs Committee were reorganized in 1946 to form the Armed Services Committee. Russell served on the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, the Central Intelligence Agency's congressional oversight committee, and the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, as well as on the Democratic Policy and Democratic Steering committees from their inceptions. After World War II (1941-1945), Russell's seniority and strong committee assignments, following a congressional reorganization, placed him in key power positions both legislatively and politically.

Russell began contesting civil rights legislation as early as 1935, when an anti-lynching bill was introduced in Congress. By 1938 he led the Southern Bloc in resisting such federal legislation based on the unconstitutionality of its provisions. The Southern Bloc argued that these provisions were infringements on states' rights. By continually blocking passage of a cloture rule in the Senate, Russell preserved unlimited debate as a method for halting or weakening civil rights legislation. Over the next three decades, through filibuster and Russell's command of the Senate's parliamentary rules and precedents, the Southern Bloc stymied all civil rights legislation.

By 1964, however, American society and the U.S. Senate itself had changed dramatically, and the strongest civil rights bill up to that time passed overwhelmingly. Once the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law, Russell urged compliance and counseled against any violence or forcible resistance; he was the only opponent of the bill to do so.

Russell was a defender of white southern traditions and values. Much of his opposition to civil rights legislation stemmed from his belief that "South haters" were its primary supporters and that life and culture in the South would be forever changed. He believed in white supremacy and a separate but equal society, but he did not promote hatred or acts of violence in order to defend these beliefs. His arguments for maintaining segregation were drawn as much from constitutional beliefs in a Jeffersonian government that both emphasizes a division of federal and state powers and fosters personal and economic freedom as they were from notions of race.

Russell's stand on civil rights was costly to the nation and to Russell himself. It contributed to his defeat in a bid for the presidency, often diverted him from other legislative and appointed business, limited his ability to accept change, weakened his health, and tainted his record historically.

During World War II, Russell led a special committee of five senators around the world to visit the war theaters and to report on the status of American troops. He expanded his views on national defense during this time to include strategic international bases for ensuring security and maintaining world stability. At the same time he did not abandon his isolationism, for he was not eager to place America in the role of world policeman. Neither Russell nor his father supported United Nations membership. Russell also had little faith in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as a peacekeeping force, and he was concerned that American-supplied arms to an allied country would fall into the hands of an aggressor. After 1945 Russell agreed with very little American foreign policy. Specifically, he opposed large foreign-aid expenditures when they caused a budget deficit for defense. He believed America's best defense was a military power so strong that no other nation could challenge it successfully.

In 1951, President Harry Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur as commander in the Far East. As chair of the joint Senate committee investigating MacArthur's dismissal, Russell conducted hearings that set the model for congressional inquiry. Many national newspapers praised Russell for his skill in defusing the situation, and he gained a reputation as one of the most powerful men in the Senate.

As the United States and the Soviet Union squared off, Russell strongly supported a military buildup, for which he insisted on civilian oversight or control. As chair of the Armed Services Committee, he started its Military Preparedness Subcommittee. He was a leader in establishing the Atomic Energy Commission, in setting up an independent Central Intelligence Agency, and in placing space exploration and development in the hands of both civilians and the military.

In 1954, Russell spoke against American military support of the French in Vietnam. A stalwart nationalist, he favored military force only when America's interests were directly threatened. He reiterated this sentiment in 1967, when the Johnson administration sent cargo planes to the Congo. Russell fought against rapid deployment, believing that the United States would always find reason to intervene in other nations' conflicts once its military had the ability to engage quickly in some far-flung battle. On June 25, 1969, the Senate passed the National Commitments Resolution, which Russell, along with Senator J. W. Fulbright, was instrumental in drafting. The resolution reasserted the Senate's right to be a participant in the making of commitments by the United States.

As the Johnson administration escalated the war in Vietnam, Russell still could not see a prevailing reason for America's involvement. During the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, he had advocated military action in what he saw as a direct Communist threat to the nation. Upholding the Monroe Doctrine, in this case, was of vital interest to the nation and its hemisphere. With Vietnam, Russell, who believed deeply in the presidency, found himself supporting four administrations as America descended into the quagmire. While he advised the presidents to "go in and win—or get out," he could neither prevail with full-scale military power nor find diplomatic solutions. Once the flag was committed, however, so was Russell. Though frustrated by policy and critical of war tactics, he did all he could to support U.S. troops by assuring that they had the best equipment and supplies and by monitoring defense appropriations.

Pursued by colleagues to accept the Senate majority leadership, Russell steadfastly refused because he wanted "absolute independence of thought and action." Instead, he promoted his young protégé Lyndon Johnson, who became the majority whip and, later, the majority leader. This was the beginning of Johnson's rise to power, and he would not have succeeded so quickly without Russell's favor.

Russell's name was twice put forward for nomination as the Democratic candidate for president. Although not a formal candidate in 1948 and not in attendance at the convention, he received 263 votes from 10 southern states that were looking for an alternative to Truman and his civil rights platform. Russell refused to join the Dixiecrats, who subsequently broke away from the party to form their own slate. In 1952 he announced his candidacy and went on to win the Florida primary. His agenda included a strong statement for local and states' rights against a growing federal centralization. At the convention he received a high of 294 votes from 23 states and lost on the third ballot to Adlai Stevenson.

In 1963, President Lyndon Johnson appointed a reluctant Russell to the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, or the Warren Commission, as it came to be known. Russell rejected the single-bullet theory, as did Texas governor John Connally, who had been wounded in the attack on Kennedy. Thinking "so much possible evidence was beyond [the commission's] reach," Russell insisted that Earl Warren qualify the commission's findings to read that they found "no evidence" that Oswald "was part of any conspiracy, domestic or foreign." Compromise with Russell was the only way Warren obtained a unanimous report.

Russell devoted his life to public service. His love of the Senate and its traditions was most evident in his own example of conduct and leadership. Russell earned the respect and admiration of his most ardent opponents for his integrity, intellect, modesty, and fairness.

Although he never married, Russell dated regularly over the years. In 1938, his engagement to an attorney ended because the couple could not reconcile differences over her Catholic faith; he later wrote that the failed relationship was his one regret. Throughout his life, Russell set his course to follow the direction of Russell Sr., who told his seven sons that although not all of them could be brilliant or successful, they could all be honorable. Russell died of complications from emphysema at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., on January 21, 1971. He lay in state at the Georgia state capitol, where President Richard Nixon visited to pay his respects.

The following year Russell's colleagues passed Senate Resolution 296 naming his old office building the Richard Brevard Russell Senate Office Building. Subsequently, a nuclear-powered submarine, a federal courthouse in Atlanta, a state highway, a dam and lake, and various structures would bear his name. Russell is buried in his family's cemetery behind the Russell home in Winder.

Scope and Content

Subgroup C, Series XI. Rivers and Harbors contains correspondence, printed materials and publications relating to federal river and harbor projects. Files are subdivided into General, Corps of Engineers, Individual Projects, and Flood Control Projects. The individual projects were relevant to the constituents of the state of Georgia and its neighbors.

Organization and Arrangement

Subgroup C, Series XI. Rivers and Harbors is organized into four subseries: A. General, B. Corps of Engineers; C. Individual Projects; and D. Flood Control.


Administrative Information and Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Case mail, cross-reference copies, and military academies are closed. Additional files are restricted throughout the collection, as noted in the container listing.

Preferred Citation

Richard B. Russell, Jr. Collection, Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, The University of Georgia Libraries, Athens, Georgia.

Processing Notes

Clippings have been copied onto bond paper for protection of content. Artifacts, photographs, books, and audiovisual materials have been separated for preservation purposes and inventoried.

User Restrictions

Library acts as "fair use" reproduction agent.

Copyright Information

Before material from collections at the Richard B. Russell Library may be quoted in print, or otherwise reproduced, in whole or in part, in any publication, permission must be obtained from (1) the owner of the physical property, and (2) the holder of the copyright. It is the particular responsibility of the researcher to obtain both sets of permissions. Persons wishing to quote from materials in the Russell Library collection should consult the Director. Reproduction of any item must contain a complete citation to the original.

Finding Aid Publication

Finding aid prepared by Russell staff, 2008.


Related Materials

Access Points

Buford Dam (Ga.)
Dams--Georgia
Harbors--Georgia.
Legislators--Georgia.
Legislators--United States.
Richard B. Russell Dam (Ga. and S.C.)
Rivers--Georgia.
Russell, Richard B., (Richard Brevard), 1897-1971
United States. Congress. Senate.

Related Collections in this Repository

Richard B. Russell, Sr. Papers

Russell Family Collection

Patience Elizabeth Russell Peterson Papers

Hugh Peterson, Sr. Papers

Herman E. Talmadge Collection

Lamartine G. Hardman Collection

Related Collections in Other Repositories

John C. Stennis Papers, Mitchell Memorial Library, Mississippi State University

Lyndon B. Johnson Papers, Lyndon B. Johnson Library

Richard B. Russell, Jr. Gubernatorial Papers, Georgia Department of Archives and History

U.S. Senate. Committee on Appropriations, Center for Legislative Archives, NARA

U.S. Senate. Committee on Armed Services, Center for Legislative Archives, NARA


Series Descriptions and Folder Listing

 

Subgroup C. United States Senatorial Papers

Scope and Content: This subgroup of papers comprehensively reveals Richard Russell's activities as a United States senator representing the state of Georgia. The papers are divided into twenty series, two of which are closed; some files are restricted. Closed or restricted files are governed by donor agreement, Executive Orders, or privacy considerations. Not many files survived from Russell's first eleven years in office; the main series for this time period are Early Office, Political, Political Patronage, Personal, and a few files in General. In 1943 and 1944, Russell's staff members reorganized the office filing system, and from that point on, the files are very complete.
The 1943 filing system places the incoming letter with a copy of Russell's reply (the yellows) attached, and the correspondence is filed by subject; these files compose the majority of the senatorial papers. Subsequent letters from the constituent and copies of Russell's replies on the same subject continued to be attached to the original correspondence and filed under the date of the latest communication from Russell. Theoretically, at the end of each Congress, these files would have been retired to storage (with the possible exception of case mail); in practice, however, there was no consistency to the length of time the subject files were retained in the active status. To respect provenance of the files and to preserve the utility of the cross reference copies, the subject files are subdivided so that within each series they are arranged chronologically by the most recent date of correspondence (with all other correspondence attached thereto). A second copy of a Russell letter (the pinks, or Cross-Reference Copies Series) was made and filed separately by correspondent's surname in a chronological file. Intra-Office Communications and Speech/Media are form files. If Russell personally dictated any portion of a letter or added a postscript, two extra copies on onionskin paper (one for the Winder office and one for the Washington office) were made and filed by subject (Dictation Series), separate from the yellow and pink copies.The flexibility of the system allowed for much divergence in filing according to the discretion of the staff member involved. Thus, as personnel changed, their interpretations on how broad or specific they should be were reflected in the filing system itself. For example, "Foreign Aid" under the General Series and "Foreign Relations" under Legislative Series. The filing system indicates that correspondence relating to proposed or pending legislation was filed under committee in Legislative and relating to action taken on passed legislation or programs administered by government agencies was filed accordingly in General. In reality, two subject headings as similar as foreign aid and foreign relations could easily be interfiled.For the most part, original order was maintained for the senatorial papers. Exceptions are Civil Rights and MacArthur Hearings Series, which were originally part of the Legislative Series. These were separated because of their research potential and the influence Senator Russell had in each area. The Barboura G. Raesly File was added to the papers subsequent to the library's establishment and contains records and materials she kept in her position as personal secretary to Russell. The Exhibit B Series, which was closed by donor agreement, contains files pulled from other series and maintained separately. When files in this series opened, Exhibit B was arranged as a parallel file to the other senatorial papers series.



XI. Rivers and Harbors, 1937-1970

Extent: 26.0 boxes
Extent: (12.25 linear feet)
Scope and Contents note: This series contains correspondence, printed materials and publications relating to federal river and harbor projects. Files are subdivided into General, Corps of Engineers, Individual Projects, and Flood Control Projects. The individual projects were relevant to the constituents of the state of Georgia and its neighbors.
A. General
1. Correspondence
BoxFolder
11Correspondence, 1966-1971
12Correspondence, 1961-1964
13Correspondence, 1959-1961
14Correspondence, 1950-1958
15Correspondence, 1948 June-July
BoxFolder
21Correspondence, 1948 January-1948 May
22Correspondence, 1947 July-December
23Correspondence, 1947 April-June
24Correspondence, 1947 January-March
2. Material
BoxFolder
25Material, 1968
26Material, 1960-1966
27Material, 1944-1959
B. Corps of Engineers
1. Correspondence
BoxFolder
31Correspondence, 1971
32Correspondence, 1970 October-December
33Correspondence, 1970 July-September
34Correspondence, 1970 March-June
35Correspondence, 1970 January
36Correspondence, 1969 July-November
37Correspondence, 1969 June
38Correspondence, 1969 April-May
39Correspondence, 1969 January-March
BoxFolder
41Correspondence, 1968 July-December
42Correspondence, 1968 January-June
43Correspondence, 1967 August-December
44Correspondence, 1967 January-July
45Correspondence, 1966 July-December
46Correspondence, 1966 January-June
47Correspondence, 1965 November-December
2. Materials and Publications
BoxFolder
51Water Resource Development Reports, 1957-1969
52Materials and Publications, 1966-1967 June
53Materials and Publications, 1966 January-May
54Materials and Publications, 1965
55Materials and Publications, 1962-1963
C. Individual Projects
1. Alabama - Coosa
BoxFolder
61Coosa, 1948-1970
62Coosa, 1957-1965
63Coosa, 1941-1946
64Coosa, 1938-1941
2. Alapaha River
BoxFolder
65Alapaha River, 1970
BoxFolder
71Alapaha River, 1969
3. Alcovy River
BoxFolder
721970
4. Allatoona Dam
BoxFolder
731964-1970
74Etowah River, 1951-1963
751962-1963
5. Altamaha River
BoxFolder
811970-1971
821970
831969 August-December
841969 January-July
851968
861966-1967
871965
881964
891960-1963
8101955-1959
8111954-1967
8121968
6. Apalachicola - Chattahoochee - Flint
BoxFolder
911965-1970
921957 May-1964
93Flint Material
7. Armuchee Creek
BoxFolder
941964-1965
8. Buford Dam
BoxFolder
1011967-1969
1021963-1966
1031961
1041960
1051958-1959
1061957
1071956
1081949-1954
1091950-1957
9. Carter’s Dam
BoxFolder
1111962-1969
1121961
1131960
1141959
115Carter’s Dam Material
10. Clark Hill Dam
BoxFolder
1211966-1968
1221962-1965
1231960-1961
1241954-1959
1251949-1953
126Clark Hill Dam Material
127Clark Hill Dam Material
BoxFolder
1311949
1321948 May-December
1331948 January-April
1341946-1947
1351937-1944
1361936
11. Columbus Levee
BoxFolder
1411962-1965
1421962
12. Coosa River
BoxFolder
1431969-1970
144(folder 1 of 2), 1968
145(folder 2 of 2), 1968
1461963
13. Flint River
BoxFolder
1511966-1970
1521964-1965
1531963
1541962 September-October
1551962 July-August
1561962 April-June
1571962 January-March
1581949-1961
1591962-1963
14. Florida Canal
BoxFolder
1611937-1939
162Florida Canal Material
15. Walter F. George Dam
BoxFolder
1631964-1970
1641962-1963
1651955-1961
16. Georgia Waterways Canal
BoxFolder
1661963 June-1967 November
1671963 April-May
17. Hartwell Dam
BoxFolder
1711965 January-1969 March
1721962 January-1963 December
1731959-1961
174Weir Dam on Tugaloo in connection with Hartwell, 1959-1961
1751949-1958
1761949-1957
18. Hells Canyon Dam
BoxFolder
1771957
19. Lake Lanier
BoxFolder
1811969-1970
1821968 October-December
1831968 January-August
1841967
185[at Buford Dam], 1966
186[at Buford Dam], 1961-1965
187[at Buford Dam], 1959-1960
20. Miller’s Ferry Dam
BoxFolder
1911959-1960
21. Ocmulgee Dam
BoxFolder
1921962-1969
22. Oconee River
BoxFolder
1931962-1970
23. Oustanaula River
BoxFolder
1941954-1959
195[Tributary of Coosa in Rome, Georgia]
24. Satilla River
BoxFolder
1961969-1970
1971960-1966
25. Savannah River
BoxFolder
1981967-1971
1991966
BoxFolder
2011965
2021962-1964
2031961
2041945-1960
2051964-1966
2061962
2071961
BoxFolder
2111952-1960
212Newspaper Clippings: 1945-1960
213June 9, 1944 (1 of 2)
214June 9, 1944 (2 of 2)
26. Southern Water Study Commission
BoxFolder
2151964-1971
2161962-1963
2171963-1966
2181962
27. Tallow Hill Dam
BoxFolder
2191960-1968
28. Trotters Shoals Dam
BoxFolder
2211966-1971
2221965 July 21-December
223Trotters Shoals Dam, Duke Power Company Dam, 1964-1965 July 20
224Also Duke Power Company Dam 1963
225October- December 1962
226September 1961- September 1962
2271961-1965
29. Water Pollution Lab
BoxFolder
231Material
30. Watershed
BoxFolder
232Watershed Material
31. West Point Dam
BoxFolder
233Correspondence, 1967-1970
234Correspondence, 1966
235Correspondence, 1964-1965
236Correspondence, 1961-1963
32. Jim Woodruff Dam
BoxFolder
237Correspondence, 1949-1966
D. Flood Control
1. Correspondence
BoxFolder
2411965-1966
2421957-1964
2431965-1966
2441963-1964 December
2451963 May- November
2. Material
BoxFolder
251(Folder 1 of 2), 1966 August 1
252(Folder 2 of 2), 1966 August 1
2531964-1966 April
2541961-1963